Artemis Brauronia was the Goddess protecting expectant mothers and women in confinement. Her main sanctuary was located in Brauron, in Attica. The sanctuary on the Acropolis was founded at the time of the tyrant Peisistratos, who originated from Brauron. The cella housed the wooden statue (xoanon) of the Goddess, similar to the one in her Brauron temple. According to Pausanias, a second statue of Artemis, carved by Praxiteles, was added (330 BC). The colossal head of that statue is on display in the Museum.

Head of Artemis Brauronia by the sculptor Praxiteles. 330 BC